CHARACTERIZATION AND ASSESSMENT OF SURFACTIN AND SOYA-SAPONIN BIOCHEMICAL PESTICIDE ON THE QUALITY OF STORED MAIZE AND COWPEA GRAINS

Author(s): Lasisi S. A, Bada, B. S, Shittu, O.B., Olatunde, K.A, Anjorin, T.S
Volume/Issue: Volume 3 , Issue 2 (2021)

ABSTRACT:

The study developed and assessed the efficacy of surfactin and soya-saponins-based biochemical pesticides on the quality of maize and cowpea grains. The surfactin was produced from solid-state fermentation of yam peel and soya waste with Bacillus subtilis. The saponin was obtained from the water extract of soya bean. The two active ingredients in the formulation were produced and characterized using a Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer for structural identity and Spectrum lab 752s for quantification. The efficacy of the derived formulation in reducing weevil infestation in stored cowpea and maize grains was assessed. The peak at 1651.5 cm-1 shown in Figure 3 confirms the presence of primary amide as –C=C- stretch vibrations for primary amide are usually observed in the region 1680-1640 cm-1. Effects of the TFP2 (Surfactin + Soya-saponin at 20%), SCP ( Lambda-cyhalothrin synthetic chemical pesticide), TM (ginger + pepper + garlic+neem and turmeric + neem + water extracts), and CN treatments on physical and quality parameters: moisture content, weevil infestation, moisture content, hundred seed weight, in 12-month storage in plastic containers, were evaluated. Moisture content increased in maize after 6 months’ storage with TM and CN treatment by 2 and 2.3 %, respectively, while storage with TFP and SCP for 12 months led to 1.39 and 2.73% increase, respectively. Storage for 6 months with CN and TM in maize and cowpea resulted in 5 and 13 weevil detections, respectively. While no weevil was found in storage with TFP and SCP for 12 months Weevil infestation in both grains was controlled in 12 months of storage with the TFP resulting in no weevil detection in maize and cowpea, compared with 6 months of storage with TM and CN, where 5 and 13 dead weevils were detected.

KEYWORDS:

Solid-state fermentation, Characterization, Surfactin, Soya-saponin, Maize Weevils, Cowpea Weevils